Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal en-US jhonzedong@gmail.com (Kangyou Wang) jhonzedong@gmail.com (Chengyin Liu) Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Causes of murder convicted in Borstal Institution and Juvenile Jail: A case study of Borstal jail District Faisalabad https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/90 <p><em>A juvenile crime is an illegal act committed by a person under the age of 18. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the causes of juvenile delinquency in district Faisalabad Punjab Pakistan. The survey also aimed to examine respondents' socioeconomic information and explore potential risk factors for crime. In today's affluent society, the behavior of juvenile delinquents has become a major problem. Recently, the government of Pakistan has recognized the importance of juvenile delinquents and has focused attention on juvenile delinquency, its causes, control/prevention, and rehabilitation through scientific and experimental research. Therefore, juvenile delinquency will pose a serious threat to the social, economic, political, religious, educational, and especially family system in the future.However, the causes of this juvenile delinquency are: low education, low income, broker families, lack of socialization, lack of religious education, media role, desire for wealth, rejection from neighbors, bad company, lack of moral values, family background, psychological problems, unemployment, family economic problems, rapid population growth etc. The subjects of this study consisted of juvenile offenders at Borstal Institute and Juvenile Detention Center, Faisalabad. The survey revealed that the majority of respondents were illiterate.Most of them belonged to low-income groups. The study concluded that poverty and low economic status promote juvenile delinquency.</em></p> Saqib Aziz Sani, Beenish Ijaz Butt, Zeeshan Munawar Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/90 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Parental Support as a Mediator of Social Factors in Sports Achievement Motivation: Insights from All Pakistan Inter-Varsity Competitions https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/88 <p><em>This study investigates the mediating role of parental support in the relationship between social factors and sports achievement motivation among athletes participating in the All Pakistan Inter-Varsity Sports Competitions. A sample of 760 athletes, comprising 483 males and 277 females, was surveyed using self-constructed questionnaires for social factors, Dr. M.L. Kamlesh's (1990) sports achievement motivation measure, and Davison, Cutting, and Birch's (2003) parental support questionnaire. The findings reveal that parental support significantly mediates the influence of social factors on sports achievement motivation, highlighting the crucial role of family support in enhancing athletes' motivation and performance. Practical implications for coaches, parents, educators, policymakers, athletic associations, and athletes are discussed, emphasizing the importance of fostering supportive environments in youth sports.</em></p> Sardar Nasir Sohail Khan, Dr. Wasim Khan, Naseem Ullah, Muhammad Tahir Bashir, Gulnaz Bibi, Qusas Ul Mass Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/88 Sun, 16 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation and Characterization of Brown Mustard Accessions for Yield Contributing Traits https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/87 <p><em>Indian mustard (Brassica juncea </em><em>L.)</em><em> is an important source of oil in Pakistan and is known for its pest resistance and short duration which may fit well in triple cropping system in the province of Punjab. Therefore, study aims to make comparisons among germplasm accessions and elite varieties available for cultivation in Pakistan. </em><em>The present research was performed to evaluate 45 genotypes of Raya (Brassica juncea L.) for yield contributing and related traits. The study employs a split-plot design, with 2 sowing dates and varieties as main and subplots, using three replications in the field research area of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha (2022-2023). Experimental accessions such as 24037, 19511, 24087 and 24067 show early germination and flowering than all other genotypes. But not a single genotype of them showed good harvested yield and harvest index, G44 (Faisalabad Mustard) and G45 (FMC Raya) also displayed good biomass and seed yield at harvested stage. G11 (24042), G38 (24057), G18 (22854) and G3 (24037) showed maximum 1000 seed weight and only G38 performed good and showed excellent harvested yield among other genotypes. G42 (Raya Anmol), G3 (24087) and G33 (Super Raya) showed maximum plant height. In this research we assume that those genotypes which showed maximum height do not display good yield. Genotypes G38, G33, G36, and G34 showed maximum pods per plant but only G38 of them show maximum yield because of its maximum seed weight. G3, G34 and G40 show maximum seeds per pod. From this, we can have concluded that G34 has both maximum seeds per pod and pods per plant but do not show maximum seed yield because of its small seed size and less weight. G2, G9, G28 and G26 showed maximum oil content among studied genotypes. G44, G45, G23 and G38 show maximum harvested yield and performed well overall, showing their potential for enhanced agricultural productivity. </em></p> Saba Tabasum, Sehar Nawaz, Ayesha Sadiqa Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/87 Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis of Women Legislation on Women Life At Workplace: A Case Study of Sargodha District https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/86 <p><em>The purpose of present study was to check the satisfaction level of women regarding laws that was making for their safety and protection at work place. Legislation is said to be the law or measure that has been sanctioned by a lawmaking body or other governing authority that is responsible for overlooking its creation. The sample comprised of 300 working women of Sargodha district drawn from urban and rural settings using multistage sampling (Sargodha district). The sample was distributed equally over the three demographics strata (two urban union councils of each tehsil and two rural union councils of each tehsil). At first stage, from Sargodha district 2 tehsils were selected randomly, at second stage from each tehsil four union councils were taken randomly (two urban, and two rural) at third stage from each union council 38 respondents were taken through purposive sampling. Data was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) v. 16. The results revealed that a significant majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the legislations that was making to empowering them. The women who are aware of the legislations were also impeded by different cultural hurdles as they feel that these steps would defame them in such areas where they live. </em></p> Ishaque Ahmed, Saqib Aziz Sani, Zeeshan Munawar, Tauqir Aamir, Yasir Javed Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/86 Thu, 13 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Advancements in Missile Technology and Nuclear Deterrence A Critical Examination of the Indo-Pak Strategic Equilibrium https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/84 <p><em>This pioneering research embarks on a profound exploration of the ever-evolving Indo-Pakistani geopolitical dynamics, shedding light on the pivotal role played by state-of-the-art missile technology in shaping the delicate equilibrium of power and nuclear deterrence in current international stiffnesses. Employing a refined analytical approach, the study meticulously unravels the intricate dance between emerging missile capabilities and the broader landscape of regional stability, offering invaluable insights into the future trajectory of this high-stakes geopolitical chessboard. By delving deep into the strategic trajectories of both India's and Pakistan's missile arsenals, the research investigates how the deployment of cutting-edge missile defense systems has catalyzed transformative shifts in deterrence strategies. Furthermore, it scrutinizes the potential avenues for arms control measures within this intricate strategic framework. Methodologically robust, the study harnesses a comprehensive blend of archival research, expert consultations, and scenario modeling to extract actionable intelligence from a wealth of data. Beyond the confines of academia, its findings serve as a guiding beacon for policymakers, strategic thinkers, and global leaders navigating the labyrinth of 21st-century geopolitics. In an era where technological advancements wield unparalleled influence over international affairs, this research serves as a testament to the transformative power of knowledge in forging a safer and more secure world, underscoring the imperative of informed decision-making in the pursuit of global stability.</em></p> Syed Rizwan Haider Bukhari, Prof Dr. Amir Ullah Khan, Dr. Shabana Noreen, Mr. Tehsin Ullah Khan, Mr. Nasir Khan, Inam Ul Haq Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/84 Thu, 06 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 “The Impact of Various Exercise Durations on Postprandial Glucose Control in Adults with Prediabetes” https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/82 <p>The global rise in the incidence of prediabetes is a major public health concern; it is primarily influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet and physical inactivity. Exercise plays a critical role in its managment by enhancing insulin sensitivity and controlling blood glucose levels. This study aims to assess the impact of an optimized exercise in term of intensity and postprandial timing (data not published) of different durations on glycemic markers in prediabetic individuals. This crossover study took place at Khyber Medical University involving 25 prediabetic adults diagnosed on American Diabetes Association criteria. Participants underwent four exercise sessions (already optimized in terms of intensity and post prandial timings) of different durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes) after a standard breakfast of 250-calories. Glycemic markers, including glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured at multiple points: fasting, pre-exercise, 30 and 60 minutes’ post-exercise. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and paired sample t-test at a significant level of&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001. Our results indicated a significant reduction in blood glucose levels post-exercise with longer durations showing more pronounced effects. Specifically, the 45 minutes’ exercise session resulted in the most substantial decrease 1 hour post-exercise bringing the parameters close to baseline improving the insulin sensitivity. The study demonstrated that increasing the duration of postprandial exercise significantly enhances glycemic control in prediabetic individuals, with longer session of 45 minutes being more effective.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Aerobic exercise, Duration, Glucose regulation, Prediabetes</p> Saman Tauqir, Syed Salman Shah, Muhammad Omar Malik, Inayat Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/82 Wed, 29 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Shaping Political Landscapes: The Role of Civil Society and Educational Institutions in Political Socialization to Achieve SDGs https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/83 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Political behavior profoundly influences societal dynamics, reflecting individuals' attitudes, sentiments, and judgments towards public issues. Collaboration among government, civil society institutions, and Educational Institutes is pivotal to shaping constructive political attitudes, particularly among youth.</p> <p><strong>Problem Statement:</strong> Despite the significance of political behavior, there's a lack of concerted efforts to foster civic education and engagement among students, potentially undermining democratic principles and societal cohesion.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study employed a qualitative literature review methodology to explore the role of educational institutions and civil society in shaping political landscapes. A systematic search and analysis of scholarly articles, books, and reports were conducted to identify key insights.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Collaboration between Educational Institutes, governments, and civil society positively impacts students' political awareness and behavior. Integrating civic education into Educational Institute curricula and organizing seminars enhance students' understanding of democratic principles and foster active participation in political discourse.</p> <p><strong>Implication and Future Direction:</strong> The findings underscore the importance of inclusive education and collaborative efforts in promoting democratic values among youth. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies to assess the long-term impact of civic education initiatives on students' political engagement and societal development.</p> Syed Rizwan Haider Bukhari, Dr. Sayed Tanweer Ahmed, Dr. Shahzad Haider, Zubaida Sattar, Muhammad Imran, Dr. Saima Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/83 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 International comparative research in early childhood education: A systematic and thematic review https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/68 <p>Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in international comparative (IC) research within the realm of early childhood education (ECE), spurred by a series of influential IC reports published by international agencies and organizations in the early 2000s. These landmark studies, coupled with global endeavours to enhance the well-being of young children amid a backdrop of increasing societal changes, have catapulted IC research to the forefront of early childhood education. In response to the growing popularity and significance of IC research in ECE, there emerged a pressing need for comprehensive literature reviews that could consolidate the intellectual structures of the field and guide future initiatives. To address this demand, this study conducted a systematic review of academic publications on IC research in ECE from 2001 to 2022, utilizing bibliometric visualization tools. Through rigorous statistical, citation, and co-citation analyses, we identified the publication trend, leading researchers, major collaborative networks, and influential works within the field. Furthermore, our thematic review of these studies revealed key research areas driving IC research in ECE. Based on these insights, the study presents recommendations for future research directions.</p> Karen Guo, Dongqing Yu Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/68 Thu, 02 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A New Lifetime Mixture Model to Estimate Repair times using Bayesian Approach https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/70 <p><em>In this study 3-component mixture model using Ailamujia distribution&nbsp; is analyzed under Bayesian paradigm. Joint posteriors are obtained for Jeffreys’ and gamma priors. Bayes estimators of &nbsp;mixture parameters and &nbsp;associated Bayes risks are derived using three loss functions i.e &nbsp;squared error loss function (SELF), precautionary loss function (PLF) and DeGroot loss function (DLF). The prior predictive method is used for hyper parameter elicitation . To numerically check the performance of Bayes estimators, simulated results are obtained for &nbsp;different test termination times, parametric values and sample sizes.&nbsp; Two &nbsp;data sets,&nbsp; on &nbsp;repair times of refrigerator components and recovery times of cancer patients are analyzed to numerically exhibit the applicability of proposed mixture model. &nbsp;Results &nbsp;suggest that DLF is a better option for estimating the component parameters.</em></p> Farzana Noor, Farhat Batool, Maliha Aziz, Sumaira Perveen Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/70 Fri, 03 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Equity in Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Policies and Practices across Cultures in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/69 <p><strong>Main Purpose:</strong> This study aimed at to investigate gender equity in sports participation among female athletes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan, with a focus on understanding the role of cultural factors. <strong>Method:</strong> A cross-sectional survey research design was employed to collect data from a diverse sample of 950 female players, representing Pashtuns, Hindkowans, Saraikis, and Chitralis. The survey questionnaire assessed sports participation, access to resources, and perceptions of gender equity. Data were analyzed to identify variations in attitudes and challenges across different ethnic groups. <strong>Main Findings:</strong> The analysis revealed significant variations in attitudes and challenges related to gender equity in sports participation among different ethnic groups in KP. Cultural norms emerged as influential factors shaping sports engagement, with some communities exhibiting progressive attitudes while others faced entrenched gender stereotypes. Implications: The findings underscore the need for culturally sensitive interventions to address barriers and promote gender equity in sports.</p> Iffat Bibi, Moheb Ullah, Fakiha Wadiat, Muhammad Khushdil Khan, Samiullah Khan, Dr. Wasim Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/69 Fri, 03 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 China’s Trade Relations with the United States Matrix of Conflict and Cooperation https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/91 <p><strong><em>Introduction: </em></strong><em>China-U.S. trade relations, as characterized by the matrix of conflict and cooperation, are a high-impact factor in the global economy. Present study inspects the historic evolution process, economic impacts, major conflicts, and areas of cooperation between these two economic giants.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>In this research, a qualitative approach was used in which previous research articles and document analysis observations were utilized as data collection techniques. Thematic analysis was used for drawing out key themes from the data.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results/Findings: </em></strong><em>The analysis highlighted significant milestones in the bilateral trade relationship, ongoing imbalances, and ongoing tensions about intellectual property and technical competition. Despite these challenges, there are significant areas of collaboration in fields such as bilateral trade agreements and technical alliances. From a geopolitical perspective, one may observe a global influence exerted by this bilateral relationship inside the interconnected network of tension.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Future Direction: </em></strong><em>Future research should further investigate the characteristics of technological decoupling, the interplay between multilateral organizations, regional trade dynamics, sustainability concerns, social and labor effects, and the resilience of global supply chains in the context of China-U.S. trade relations.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>China-U.S. trade relations, economic impact, trade imbalances, intellectual property rights, technological competition, geopolitical implications</em></p> Syed Rizwan Haider Bukhari (Corresponding Author), Mr. Tehsin Ullah Khan, Mr. Nasir Khan, Prof Dr. Amir Ullah Khan, Dr. Shabana Noreen, Mr. Inam Ul Haq, Mr. Tanvir Ullah, Mr. Ehsanullah Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Research https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/91 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Data Analysis of Physical Activities & Sports Between the Participants and Non-Participants of Physical Education College Students https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/74 <p>The regular performance of physical activities has lots of benefits in our lives. Exercise and physical activity during adolescence may positively effect on the physical fitness levels and body composition. If a person engages him/herself in physical activities will remain physically fit and can maintain healthy body composition which is the key of life. This research is based on male colleges of northern Punjab. There is total 112 male colleges in the northern Punjab from which 21 colleges were selected and 210 participants and non-participants were collected. Four physical activities were compared like flexibility, general endurance, long jump and speed. This research revealed that the participants have more stamina as compare to non-participants. This study also found that the flexibility, general endurance, long jump and speed was good in participants as compare to non-participants. Total number of participants were 210 and non-participants were 210.The mean score percentage of participants is 11.04 with standard deviation 10.582 and mean score percentage of non-participants is 6.92 with standard deviation 10.235.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Physical Activities, Sports, Exercise, Participant, Non-Participants</p> Dr. Mehwish Manzoor, Iqra Kadam, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Ismail Wasan, Dr. Maryam Manzoor, Muntah Munir Copyright (c) 2024 https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/74 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Data Analysis of Physical Activities & Sports Between the Participants and Non-Participants of Physical Education College Students https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/77 <p>The regular performance of physical activities has lots of benefits in our lives. Exercise and physical activity during adolescence may positively effect on the physical fitness levels and body composition. If a person engages him/herself in physical activities will remain physically fit and can maintain healthy body composition which is the key of life. This research is based on male colleges of northern Punjab. There is total 112 male colleges in the northern Punjab from which 21 colleges were selected and 210 participants and non-participants were collected. Four physical activities were compared like flexibility, general endurance, long jump and speed. This research revealed that the participants have more stamina as compare to non-participants. This study also found that the flexibility, general endurance, long jump and speed was good in participants as compare to non-participants. Total number of participants were 210 and non-participants were 210.The mean score percentage of participants is 11.04 with standard deviation 10.582 and mean score percentage of non-participants is 6.92 with standard deviation 10.235.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Physical Activities, Sports, Exercise, Participant, Non-Participants</p> Dr. Mehwish Manzoor, Iqra Kadam, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Ismail Wasan, Dr. Maryam Manzoor, Muntah Munir Copyright (c) 2024 https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/77 Mon, 27 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 “The Impact of Various Exercise Durations on Postprandial Glucose Control in Adults with Prediabetes” https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/78 <p>The global rise in the incidence of prediabetes is a major public health concern; it is primarily influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet and physical inactivity. Exercise plays a critical role in its managment by enhancing insulin sensitivity and controlling blood glucose levels. This study aims to assess the impact of an optimized exercise in term of intensity and postprandial timing (data not published) of different durations on glycemic markers in prediabetic individuals. This crossover study took place at Khyber Medical University involving 25 prediabetic adults diagnosed on American Diabetes Association criteria. Participants underwent four exercise sessions (already optimized in terms of intensity and post prandial timings) of different durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes) after a standard breakfast of 250-calories. Glycemic markers, including glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured at multiple points: fasting, pre-exercise, 30 and 60 minutes’ post-exercise. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and paired sample t-test at a significant level of&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001. Our results indicated a significant reduction in blood glucose levels post-exercise with longer durations showing more pronounced effects. Specifically, the 45 minutes’ exercise session resulted in the most substantial decrease 1 hour post-exercise bringing the parameters close to baseline improving the insulin sensitivity. The study demonstrated that increasing the duration of postprandial exercise significantly enhances glycemic control in prediabetic individuals, with longer session of 45 minutes being more effective.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Aerobic exercise, Duration, Glucose regulation, Prediabetes</p> Saman Tauqir, Syed Salman Shah, Muhammad Omar Malik, Inayat Shah Copyright (c) 2024 https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/78 Mon, 24 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 “The Impact of Various Exercise Durations on Postprandial Glucose Control in Adults with Prediabetes” https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/80 <p>The global rise in the incidence of prediabetes is a major public health concern; it is primarily influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet and physical inactivity. Exercise plays a critical role in its managment by enhancing insulin sensitivity and controlling blood glucose levels. This study aims to assess the impact of an optimized exercise in term of intensity and postprandial timing (data not published) of different durations on glycemic markers in prediabetic individuals. This crossover study took place at Khyber Medical University involving 25 prediabetic adults diagnosed on American Diabetes Association criteria. Participants underwent four exercise sessions (already optimized in terms of intensity and post prandial timings) of different durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes) after a standard breakfast of 250-calories. Glycemic markers, including glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured at multiple points: fasting, pre-exercise, 30 and 60 minutes’ post-exercise. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and paired sample t-test at a significant level of&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001. Our results indicated a significant reduction in blood glucose levels post-exercise with longer durations showing more pronounced effects. Specifically, the 45 minutes’ exercise session resulted in the most substantial decrease 1 hour post-exercise bringing the parameters close to baseline improving the insulin sensitivity. The study demonstrated that increasing the duration of postprandial exercise significantly enhances glycemic control in prediabetic individuals, with longer session of 45 minutes being more effective.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Aerobic exercise, Duration, Glucose regulation, Prediabetes</p> Saman Tauqir Copyright (c) 2024 https://researchsci.net/index.php/Journal/article/view/80 Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000